Cas grammaticaux de la Langue Divine

Table des matières

Grammatical states marques with a star ( * ) are grammatical states that do not exist as declensions in the Divine Language.

1 Chart for review for the basic cases

  interior surface adjacency state
from Elative Delative Ablative Excessive
at/in Inessive Superessive Adessive Essive
(in)to Illative Sublative Allative Translative
via Perlative Prolative    

2 Location

Adessive case ADE iŗ-
adjacent location

Example: near/at/by the house, íŗmén

Antessive case ANTE vwo-
anterior location

Example: before the house, vwómén

Apudessive case APUD ne-
location next to something

Example: next to the house, némén

Inessive case -ŕo-
inside something

Example: inside the house, méŕón

Intrative case ITRT -fu-
between something

Example: between the houses, méfún

Locative case LOC la-
location (general case)

Example: at/on/in the house, lámén

Pertingent case ma-
in contact with something

Example: touching the house, mámén

Postessive case POSTE -uß
posterior location

Example: behind the house, ménúß

Subessive case SUBE nwo-
under something

Example: under/below the house, nwómén

Superessive case SUPE ßta-
on the surface

Example: on (top of) the house, ßtámén

3 Motion from

Ablative case ABL li-
movement away from something

Example: away from the house, límén

Delative case DEL ßa-
movement from the surface

Example: from (the top of) the house, ßámén

*Egressive case EGRE
marking the beginning of a movement or time

Example: beginning from the house

Elative case ELA -ykń
out of something

Example: out of the house, ménýkń

Initiative case INITI -akļ
starting point of an action

Example: beginning from the house, ménákļ

4 Motion to

Allative case ALL -li-
  • *in Hungarian and in Finnish: movement to (the adjacency of). Example: to the house
  • in Estonian and in Finnish: movement onto something. Example: onto the house, mélín
Illative case ILL -ën-
movement into something

Example: into the house, mênén

Lative case LAT -la
movement to something (general case)

Example: to/into the house, ménlá

Sublative case SUBL -iţ
movement onto the surface or below something

Example: on(to) the house / under the house, méníţ

Terminative case TERM -aen
marking the end of a movement or time

Example: as far as the house, ménáén

5 Motion via

Perlative case PER žu-
movement through or along

Example: through/along the house, žúmén

Prolative case PROL še-
movement using a surface or way (= prosecutive case, vialis case)

Example: by way of/through the house, šémén

6 Time

Accusative case ACC -źu
indicating duration of time known as the accusative of duration of time

Example: for many years, łaižegźu

Essive case ESS -oiþyd-
used for specifying days and dates when something happens

Example: on the first day of the week, žóíþýdójorém

Limitative case LIMIT -amp
specifying a deadline

Example: by the first day of the week, žójorémámp

Temporal case TEMP -igni
specifying a time

Example: at seven o’clock, ţuheol ţupńtwan ţéálnatigni (GEN-hour GEN-seven precise-TEMP, at the precise hour of seven)

7 Morphosyntactic alignment

Absolutive case (1) ABS -a
patient, experiencer; subject of an intransitive verb and direct object of a transitive verb. In the divine language, the absolutive case is only used for the subject of an intransitive verb.

Example: he pushed the door and it opened, kjaŗa (door)

*Absolutive case (2) ABS
patient, involuntary experiencer

Example: he pushed the door and it opened; he slipped

*Absolutive case (3) ABS
patient, experiencer; instrument

Example: he pushed the door with his hand and it opened

*Accusative case (1)

Example: he pushed the door and it opened

Accusative case (2) ACC -vo
direct object of a transitive verb

Example: I see her, kjeŗvo

Agentive case AGE te-
agent, specifies or asks about who or what; specific agent that is subset of a

general topic or subject. Equivalent to the -ga particle in Japanese Example: it was she who committed the crime; as for him, his head hurts, tekjeŗ, tegar

Ergative case ERG -jo
agent; subject of a transitive verb

Example: he pushed the door and it opened

*Ergative-genitive case EGN
agent, possession

Example: he pushed the door and it opened; her dog

Instructive INSTRUCTIVE -eň
means, answers question how?

Example: by the means of the houses, ménéň

Instrumental INS/INSTR -dļ
instrument, answers question using which thing?

Example: with the house, méndļ

*Instrumental-comitative case
instrument, in company of something

Example: with the house

*Nominative case (1)
agent, experiencer; subject of a transitive or intransitive verb

Example: he pushed the door and it opened

*Nominative case (2)
agent; voluntary experiencer

Example: he pushed the door and it opened; she paused

Nominative case NOM (3) pa-
In the divine language, the person linked to the word; transforms a verbal group into a nominal group

Example: horseman, panael (the man linked to horses, implied riding horses)

*Objective case (1) OBJ
direct or indirect object of verb

Example: I saw her; I gave her the book

*Objective/Oblique (2)
direct or indirect object of verb or object of preposition; a catch-all case for any situation except nominative or genitive

Example: I saw her; I gave her the book; with her

Oblique case OBL -ŗeß
all-round case; any situation except nominative or vocative. In the divine language, is used to quote the element

Example: concerning the house, ménŗéß

Intransitive case INTR -ai
the subject of an intransitive verb or the logical complement of a transitive verb (= passive or patient case)

Example: the door opened, mělai

Pegative case PEG ey-
agent in a clause with a dative argument

Example: he gave the book to him, eykjaŗ

8 Relation

Ablative case łe-
all-round indirect case

Example: concerning the house, łémén

Aversive case EVIT -ńþ-
avoiding or fear

Example: avoiding the house, mńþén

*Benefactive case BEN
for, for the benefit of, intended for

Example: for the house

Causal case CAUS -oby
because, because of

Example: because of the house, ménóbý

*Causal-final case
efficient or final cause

Example: for a house

Comitative case COM -ðei-
in company of something

Example: with the house, méðéín

Dative case DAT -at-
shows directon or recipient

Example: for/to the house, mátén

Distributive case DISTR xelje-
distribution by piece

Example: per house, xéljémén

Distributive-temporal case -be
how often something happens

Example: on Sundays, ðúbémbé

Genitive case GEN ţu-
shows relationship, possesssion

Example: of the house; the house’s, ţúmén

*Ornative case
endowment with something

Example: equipped with a house

*Possessed case POSS
possession by something

Example: the house is owned by someone

Privative case ei-
lacking something (in general)

Example: without a houses, éímén

Semplative case -ŗwo
similarity to something

Example: that tree is like a house, ménŗwó

Sociative case to-
along with something, together with something

Example: with the house, tómén

9 Semantics

Partitive case PTV/PART -ili’-
used for amounts

Example: three (of the) houses, mílí’én

*Prepositional case PREP
when certain prepositions precede the noun
*Postpositional case POST
when certain preposition follows the noun

Example: in/on/about the house

Vocative case VOC -wa
used for addressing someone, with or without a preposition

Example: Hey, father! O father! Father!, pánámwá

10 State

Abessive case ABE/ABESS e-
the lack of something, a particular thing

Example: without the house, émén

Adverbial case ADV -ei
being as something

Example: as a house, ménéí

Comparative case COMP -oit
similarity with something

Example: similar to the house, compared to the house, ménóít

Equative case -ńt
comparison with something

Example: like the house, ménńt

Essive case -oiþyd-
temporary state of being, general use (essive-formal or essive-modal undefined, or both)

Example: as the house, móíþýdén

Essive-formal case -ëd
marking a condition as a quality (a kind of shape)

Example: as a house, ménêd

Essive-modal case -u’ug
marking a condition as a quality (a way of being)

Example: as a house, ménú’úg

*Exessive case
marking a transition from a condition

Example: from being a house (i.e., “it stops being a house”)

*Formal case
marking a condition as a quality

Example: as a house

Identical case -etur
showing that something is identical

Example: being identical to the house, ménétúr

Orientative case ORI fo-
oriented towards something

Example: turned towards the house, fómén

Revertive case -ňo-
backwards to something

Example: against the house, méňón

Translative case TRANSL -in
change of a condition into another

Example: (turning) into a house, ménín

Auteur: Lucien Cartier-Tilet

Created: 2018-05-21 lun. 15:09